Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on
the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.
ECC requires smaller keys compared to non-EC cryptography (based on plain Galois fields)
to provide equivalent security. Part of the core code in the smart contract is implemented as follows:

A modulo multiplication group is a finite group G_{n} of residue classes prime to n under multiplication mod n.
G_{n} is abelian of group order Φ(n), where Φ(n) is the totient function. Part of the core code in the smart contract is implemented as follows: